The Sun was held back for none except Prophet Joshua
There is no proof that the sun was held back for anyone except the Prophet of Allah Yoosha‘ ibn Noon (عليه السلام). In fact the Prophet (صلي الله عليه وسلم) stated that this did not happen to anyone other than Yoosha‘ ibn Noon (عليه السلام).
That is seen in the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه), according to which the Prophet (صلي الله عليه وسلم) said: “One of the Prophets went out on a campaign… and he approached a town at the time of ‘Asr prayer, or close to that time. He said to the sun: You are under the command of Allaah and I am under the command of Allaah. O Allaah, halt it for me for a while. So it was halted for him until Allaah granted him victory.”
[Source: Narrated by al-Bukhaari (no. 3124) and Muslim (no. 1747)]
In the version narrated by Imam Ahmad (رحمه الله تعالى) in al-Musnad it says:
The Prophet (صلي الله عليه وسلم) said:
حَدَّثَنَا أَسْوَدُ بْنُ عَامِرٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ، عَنْ هِشَامٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ سِيرِينَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: ” إِنَّ الشَّمْسَ لَمْ تُحْبَسْ عَلَى بَشَرٍ إِلَّا لِيُوشَعَ لَيَالِيَ سَارَ إِلَى بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ “
[مسند أحمد (2 / 325) و البداية و النهاية , (1/323)]
“The sun has never been held back for a human being from setting except for Yoosha‘ (Joshua) on the day he was marching to Jerusalem (Bayt ul-Maqdis)”
[Source: Musnad Ahmad (2/352), also mentioned by Ibn Katheer in al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, (1/323)]
Ibn Hajar (رحمه الله تعالى) said in Fath al-Baree regarding the health of this chain of narrators of this hadeeth:
قال الحافظ ابن حجر (رحمه الله) في ” الفتح ” بصحة هذا السند :” فإن رجال إسناده محتج بهم في الصحيح “.
[فتح الباري شرح صحيح البخاري, (6/154)]
“The men in its chain [of narrators] are those on whom [Bukharee] depended in his Saheeh”
[Source: Fath al-Baree, (6/154)]
Shaykh Shu’aib al-Arnaoot said in his checking of Musnad Ahmad:
إسناده صحيح على شرط البخاري ، أبو بكر -وهو ابن عياش- من رجاله، وباقي رجال الِإسناد ثقات من رجال الشيخين.
[مسند أحمد (تحقق: شعيب الأرنؤوط) (14/65-66)]
“Its chain is authentic upon the conditions of al-Bukharee. Abu Bakr- and he is Ibn Ayyash – is from its [Bukharee’s] men. The rest of the men of the chain are reliable and from the men of both the Shaykh (i.e. al-Bukharee and Muslim)”
[Source: Musnad Ahmad (checked by Shaykh Shu’aib al-Arnaoot) (14/65-66)]
Shaykh Muhammad Naasiruddin al-Albanee (رحمه الله تعالى) classed this hadeeth of Musnad Ahmad to be authentic in his work “Silsilah ahadeeth as-Saheehah” where he said:
قال الشيخ الألباني (رحمه الله) :”هذا حديث صحيح جليل…
قلت: وهذا إسناد جيد، رجاله كلهم ثقات من رجال الشيخين عدا أبا بكر وهو
ابن عياش، فإنه من رجال البخاري وحده…”
[السلسلة الاحاديث اصحيحة , 1/394 (رقم 202)]
“This hadeeth is greatly (significantly) authentic. Then he said that this has been narrated by Abu Hurairah from 4 different routes.”
Regarding the route of this hadeeth in Musnad Ahmad (5/325), the Shaykh said:
“I say: This chain is good and all of its narrators are trustworthy (reliable) and are from the narrators of both the Shaykh (i.e. al-Bukharee and Muslim) except Aba Bakr and he is Ibn Ayyash. He is from the narrators of Bukharee only.”
[Source: Silsilah ahadeeth as-Saheehah, 1/394, (no. 202)]
Shaykh al-Albaani (رحمه الله تعالى) further said:
” فيه أن الشمس لم تحبس لأحد إلا ليوشع عليه السلام ، ففيه إشارة إلى ضعف ما يروى أنه وقع ذلك لغيره ومن تمام الفائدة أن أسوق ما وقفنا عليه من ذلك … “
“This indicates that the sun was not held back for anyone except for Yoosha‘ (peace be upon him). This is indicative of the weakness of the reports which suggest that happened for anyone else. It is appropriate to quote what we have come across concerning that…”
Then the shaykh (رحمه الله تعالى) mentioned what has been narrated about the same being held back for people other than Yoosha‘ ibn Noon (peace be upon him) and explained what is wrong with these reports.
[Source: Silsilah ahadeeth as-Saheehah, 1/399, (no. 202)]
To conclude, we have not come across any basis for the story about the sun being held back from rising until Bilaal ibn Rabah (رضي الله عنه) gave the adhaan, in any saheeh or da‘eef report, or even in any fabricated (mawdoo‘) hadeeth that is known.
It is not permissible to speak of such things except on the basis of sound proof and evidence. Otherwise it is speculation, and speaking about Allah without knowledge.